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Tyre Knowledge

Components of a Tyre
A tire carcass is composed of several parts.

Tread
The tread is that part of the tyre which comes in contact with the road. The tread is made of thick rubber, or composite compound formulated to provide an appropriate level of traction that does not wear away quickly. Tire tread patterns are the arrangement of continuous ribs, independent tread blocks, circumferential and lateral grooves, as well as the thin sipes molded into the tread to fine-tune noise, handling, traction and wear. Tire treads patterns feature different basic designs to help them meet anticipated driving conditions.

TREAD

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Bead
The bead is that part of the tire that contacts the rim on the wheel. The bead is typically reinforced with steel wire and compounded of high strength, low flexibility rubber. The bead seats tightly against the two rims on the wheel to ensure that a tubeless tire holds air without leakage. The bead fit is tight to ensure the tire does not shift circumferentially as the wheel rotates. The width of the rim in relationship to the tire is a factor in the handling characteristics of an automobile, because the rim supports the tire's profile.

Sidewall
The sidewall is that part of the tire that bridges between the tread and bead. The sidewall is largely rubber but reinforced with fabric or steel cords that provide for strength and flexibility. The sidewall transmits the torque applied by the drive axle to the tread in order to create traction. The sidewall, in conjunction with the air inflation, also supports the load of the vehicle. Sidewalls are molded with manufacturer-specific detail, government mandated warning labels, and other consumer information.

Shoulder
The shoulder is that part of the tire at the edge of the tread as it makes transition to the sidewall.

Ply
Plies are layers of relatively inextensible cords embedded in the rubber to hold its shape by preventing the rubber from stretching in response to the internal pressure. The orientations of the plies plays a large role in the performance of the tire and is one of the main ways that tires are categorized. The number of plies determines the load capacity of the tyre.

Construction Types
Bias
Bias tire (or cross ply) construction utilizes body ply cords that extend diagonally from bead to bead, usually at angles in the range of 30 to 40 degrees, with successive plies laid at opposing angles forming a crisscross pattern to which the tread is applied. The design allows the entire tire body to flex easily, providing the main advantage of this construction, a smooth ride on rough surfaces. This cushioning characteristic also causes the major disadvantages of a bias tire: increased rolling resistance and less control and traction at higher speeds.

Construction Types

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Belted Bias
A belted bias tire starts with two or more bias-plies to which stabilizer belts are bonded directly beneath the tread. This construction provides smoother ride that is similar to the bias tire, while lessening rolling resistance because the belts increase tread stiffness. The plies and belts are at different angles, which improves performance compared to non-belted bias tires. The belts may be cord or steel.

Radial
Radial tire construction utilizes body ply cords extending from the beads and across the tread so that the cords are laid at approximately right angles to the centerline of the tread, and parallel to each other, as well as stabilizer belts directly beneath the tread. The belts may be cord or steel. The advantages of this construction include longer tread life, better steering control, and lower rolling resistance. Disadvantages of the radial tire include a harder ride at low speeds on rough roads and in the context of off-roading, decreased "self-cleaning" ability and lower grip ability at low speeds.

Solid
Many tires used in industrial and commercial applications are non-pneumatic, and are manufactured from solid rubber and plastic compounds via molding operations. Solid tires include those used for lawn mowers, skateboards, golf carts, scooters, and many types of light industrial vehicles, carts, and trailers. One of the most common applications for solid tires is for material handling equipment (forklifts). Such tires are installed by means of a hydraulic tire press.

Specifications
Tire pressure monitoring system
Tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) are electronic systems that monitor the tire pressures on individual wheels on a vehicle, and alert the driver when the pressure goes below a warning limit. There are several types of designs to monitor tire pressure. Some actually measure the air pressure, and some make indirect measurements, such as gauging when the relative size of the tire changes due to lower air pressure.

Inflation pressure
Tires are specified by the vehicle manufacturer with a recommended inflation pressure, which permits safe operation within the specified load rating and vehicle loading. Most tires are stamped with a maximum pressure rating. For passenger vehicles and light trucks, the tires should be inflated to what the vehicle manufacturer recommends, which is usually located on a decal just inside the driver's door or in the vehicle owners handbook. Tires should not generally be inflated to the pressure on the sidewall; this is the maximum pressure, rather than the recommended pressure. 

Load rating
Tires are specified by the manufacturer with a maximum load rating. Loads exceeding the rating can result in unsafe conditions that can lead to steering instability and even rupture.  

Speed rating
The speed rating denotes the maximum speed at which a tire is designed to be operated. For passenger vehicles these ratings range from 99 to 186 miles per hour (159 to 299 km/h). Replacing a tire on a vehicle with one with a lower speed rating than originally specified by the vehicle manufacturer may render the insurance invalid.

Retread
Tires that are fully worn can be re-manufactured to replace the worn tread. This is known as retreading or recapping, a process of buffing away the worn tread and applying a new tread. Retreading is economical for truck tires because the cost of replacing the tread is less than the price of a new tire. Retreading passenger tires is less economical because the cost of retreading is high compared to the price of new cheap tires, but favorable compared to high-end brands.

Markings
DOT code
In the United States, the DOT Code is an alphanumeric character sequence molded into the sidewall of the tire for purposes of tire identification. The DOT Code is mandated by the U.S. Department of Transportation. The DOT Code is useful in identifying tires in a product recall.

E-mark
All tires sold for road use in Europe after July 1997 must carry an E-mark. The mark itself is either an upper case "E" or lower case "e" – followed by a number in a circle or rectangle, followed by a further number. An (upper case) "E" indicates that the tire is certified to comply with the dimensional, performance and marking requirements of ECE regulation 30. A (lower case) "e" indicates that the tire is certified to comply with the dimensional, performance and marking requirements of Directive 92/23/EEC.

Safety
Proper vehicle safety requires specific attention to inflation pressure, tread depth, and general condition of the tires. Over-inflated tires run the risk of explosive decompression (they may pop). On the other hand, under-inflated tires have a higher rolling resistance and suffer from overheating and rapid tread wear particularly on the edges of the tread. Excessive tire wear will reduce steering and braking response, and tires worn down past their safety margins and into the casing run the very real risk of rupturing.

Hydroplaning (or aquaplaning)
Hydroplaning, also known as aquaplaning, is the condition where a layer of water builds up between the tire and road surface. Hydroplaning occurs when the tread pattern cannot channel away enough water at an adequate rate to ensure a semi-dry footprint area. When hydroplaning occurs, the tire effectively "floats" above the road surface on a cushion of water – and loses traction, braking and steering, creating a very unsafe driving condition. When hydroplaning occurs, there is considerably less responsiveness of the steering wheel. The correction of this unsafe condition is to gradually reduce speed, by merely lifting off the accelerator/gas pedal.

Scrap tires and environmental issues
Once tires are discarded, they are considered scrap tires. Scrap tires are often re-used for things from bumper car barriers to weights to hold down tarps. Some facilities are permitted to recycle scrap tires through chipping, and processing into new products, or selling the material to licensed power plants for fuel. Some tires may also be retreaded for re-use. One group did "a study to evaluate the possibility of using scrap tires as a crash cushion system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the material properties of used tires and recycled tire-derived materials for use in low-cost, reusable crash cushions".



Product Range
Radial Truck Tyres   ||  Bias LCV & Truck Tyres   ||  Radial Car & Light Commercial Vehicle Tyres  ||  Agricultural Tyres  ||  Off The Road Tyres
Three Wheeler Tyres  ||   Motorcycle Tyres  ||  Industrial Tyre  ||  Alloy Wheels  ||  Truck Steel Rims


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